The National Cancer Institute's 684-page report, "The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use," concludes that tobacco advertising and promotion are causally related to increased
tobacco use, while exposure to smoking in movies is causally related to youth smoking. The report believes media campaigns can reduce smoking; tobacco industry campaigns that propose the same goal do
not. Cigarettes are one of the most heavily marketed products in the United States. Between 1940 and 2005, U.S. cigarette manufacturers spent about $250 billion (in 2006 dollars) on cigarette
advertising and promotion. The NCI recommends a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, as well as airing anti-tobacco ads before films to counter the impact of tobacco portrayals.