Taking less than sophisticated data, integrating into sophisticated systems, and turning it into granular targeting is big data, according to Mark Jeffery. The senior lecturer of executive programs at the Kellogg School of Management, Center for Research on Technology and Innovation at the Kellogg School of Management said it all comes down to data or audience segments. The industry talks about one-to-one marketing but no one really does it. It's all about process first and tools second. Marketers need near-time not real-time data.