New York, the immigrants Mecca, offers a particularly good example. For instance, everybody knows that the Upper West Side of Manhattan, ZIP codes 10023-10025 and parts of southern 10027, represents a concentration of Jews that rivals Jerusalem or Tel Aviv in both numbers and in the nuances of practice and orthodoxy.
Similarly, you can find ethnic outposts throughout New York City. Arabs live in Brooklyn Heights concentrated around the axis of Atlantic Avenue and Court Street. Greeks live in Astoria. Poles concentrate in Greenpoint, Irish in Hell's Kitchen and Bay Ridge, and Italians live in Bensonhurst, Caroll Gardens, and "Little Italy." Koreans have colonized Flushing in the way the Chinese took root in the Lower East Side a century before them.
The Russians turned Brighton Beach into "Little Odessa" twenty years ago and there are still German enclaves in Yorkville and in Upper Manhattan, gay enclaves in Chelsea and even a Swedish community in Bay Ridge in view of a Verrazano Bridge. Spanish speakers... Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, Dominicans, Ecuadorians, Guatemalans, Peruvians, etc. each have multi-block enclaves dispersed in several boroughs. Many of these communities are so strong and have such close ties to their homelands that Latin American politicians routinely campaign in New York City neighborhoods.
In the old days, a native of any of these countries could live in these communities and not really need to speak English. They could find people who lived, acted, dressed, believed, and thought the way they did. And they could find familiar foods, spices, clothes, and customs. To some extent, this is still true, though things are changing rapidly. Ideally a marketer seeking to penetrate these discrete markets can find media to zero-in on these audiences and communicate pointed messages (often in a foreign language) that will provoke awareness, recognition, and response.
But even this isn't as easy as it seems because translating this understanding into media that will provide effective credible reach is a chore. Several factors complicate the process, primarily: Americanization. Classic ethnic names no longer predict ethnicity. Not all names ending in a vowel are Italian or Portuguese. You can no longer assume all names ending in "es" or "ez" are Spanish or that names ending in "Ski" are Polish or "ian" are Armenian.
Generational differences in language preference and media use increase the marketers' task. An immigrant grandparent still speaks and reads only Russian, gets news and information from Russian-language newspapers, TV, and radio. An adult child speaks Spanglish at work and Spanish at home defaulting to TV Novellas every night on Telemundo or Univision for entertainment and Noticias for news. And a grandchild is fully bilingual, generally preferring English media but carefully reading a Latina magazine at the nail salon.
Geography, language, education, country of origin, and generation are the starting variables that must be mixed with attitudes, sensibilities, income, peer influences, and media use patterns to begin an effective media planning process. You can not crunch numbers to get the answer. You need a specialist able to mix science with art to understand and capture the micro-target desired.
The misses generally outnumber the hits. And even so-called multicultural agencies often don't have the breadth of knowledge and insight to do the job right. In some cases, the mistakes are simultaneously funny and maddening.
Verizon's current "Call Home" outdoor campaign is a great example. Some marketing nimrod put ads on bus shelters throughout the Upper West Side touting low-cost calls to Warsaw. The copy suggests that a plate of pirogi is cheaper than a call home. Who knows how he or she decided to target this message to this geography.
But the reality is that this is a perfect micro-targeting mismatch. The people who see these messages are those who fled Poland, were in concentration camps on Polish soil, or are their children and grandchildren who have, at best, an ambivalence and, at worst, an enmity toward Poland and Poles. They are no more likely to phone Warsaw than they are likely to eat pirogi, a food they associate with historic anti-Semitism, oppression, and extermination. In this case, micro-targeting I'm sure, will yield very warm and fuzzy feelings about Verizon, the growing insensitive colossus.